The Ahmad Jam Water Reservoir is an example of vernacular architecture being specifically designed to act in accordance to climatic conditions as well as provide other necessary functions. The design of the subterranean water cistern in the Ahmad Jam Water Reservoir not only provides a water collection system, but also acts as a climatic regulator. Our research includes analysis of the varying levels of heat transfer within and around the building during a 24-hour cycle from the 19th of April to the 20th of April, alongside analysis of the fabrication techniques and composition of materials used for construction.
Digital models of the building enabled thermal tests to be carried out as well as wind pressure tests, enabling us to obtain accurate environmental and performative analysis of the building. The result of the analysis highlighted the effectiveness of the building’s design. The subterranean nature of the cistern and the domed or vaulted ceiling above it have proved highly successful for maintaining cool water temperatures and reduce water evaporation as well the level of pollution from dust and other outside sources. The combined density of the ground and volume of water within the cistern creates a thermal mass, which acts as a thermal regulator enabling a constant water temperature to be maintained internally, while the outside is in a constant state of fluctuation.
Cold water was used to fill the cisterns during the winter months. Wind towers were often used to form passive ventilation to keep the water cool and allow evaporated water to escape. The shape of the wind towers and the configuration of the openings draw a continuous flow of air across the surface of the water, preventing the heating up of deeper layers of water.
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